Biomonitoring as an Aid to Viewing

by Frank A. Gerbode, M.D.

Dr. Frank A. Gerbode is a physician, a psychiatrist, and was also trained in philosophy. He is the author of the book Beyond Psychology, an important and comprehensive work on Traumatic Incident Reduction (TIR)–a style of clearing which is becoming widely known. He is the founder of the Institute for Research in Metapsychology, which has recently evolved into the Traumatic Incident Reduction Association (TIRA). In this article, Dr. Gerbode explains the utilization of the Clearing Biomonitor in TIR.

Various applications of metapsychology are intended to help a client improve the quality of her world of experience. In doing so, we must observe her carefully–her words, intonation, emotional state, and body language. We want to know when her attention is still focused on an issue she is addressing and when she has reached an “end point”–a point of resolution when she is feeling happy and relieved (see “Knowing When to Stop,” below). We also need to know when something catches her attention and interest, and for this we must depend on the viewer’s facial expression and, perhaps, a certain glint in her eye. While simple observation can go a long way toward finding out these sort of things about the viewer, it is helpful to have a “sixth sense” with which to augment ordinary perceptions. Galvanic skin response (GSR) provides additional indicators that are extremely helpful.

We also need a good theoretical base from which to operate, and a systematic and effective approach. Metapsychology–the science that unifies mental and physical experience and seeks to discover the rules that apply to both–provides the strong theoretical base. Viewing–an application of metapsychology consisting of an array of procedures a person can use to observe and modify her own experience–provides a workable approach. As a matter of terminology, we refer to the person who is working on observing and modifying her own experience as a “viewer,” since the main action she is engaged in is viewing. And the one who is helping to make the process of viewing easier for the viewer we call a “facilitator.” For simplicity, I will refer to the facilitator as “he” and the viewer as “she.”

The galvanic skin response meter (GSR meter) is probably the oldest biofeedback and biomonitoring device known, having first been described in 1888 by C.S. Fere, a French physician. Since then, it has been extensively used in psychotherapy. Carl Jung, for instance, used it in connection with word-association tests. It has also been used as one of the measurements taken in a polygraph (“lie-detector”) recording, and for assisting clients to learn how to relax. It has the advantage of being inexpensive, accurate, and easy to use, but only fairly recently has it been used to assist in facilitating the process of viewing.

Whenever we use a GSR meter, we use it as a biomonitoring device, rather than for biofeedback. The facilitator observes the viewer and the meter, and uses the data to decide what to do next in the session. The viewer needs all of her attention focused on the charged material she is viewing and would be distracted if the facilitator were to keep giving her feedback about what the meter was doing.

Description of the GSR meter

The GSR meter (Figure 1) works by measuring the electrical resistance from an electrode in contact with one part of the skin surface to another electrode on another part of the skin surface. The palms seem to work best as contact points, although other contact points can be used. Cylindrical, handheld electrodes seem to work best. A very small voltage (about 0.5-3.0 volts) is applied to the contacts, sending a tiny, imperceptible and harmless current through the body, and the resistance between the two contacts is measured. The resistance measured in this way varies widely–from about 600 ohms to over 200,000 ohms (Figure 2), depending on a number of factors. In most people, under ordinary circumstances, the resistance will be found to be in the range of 5000-15,000 ohms. Meters commonly used have a control that compensates for the baseline resistance, numbered rather arbitrarily to indicate the different possible baseline values (Figures 1 & 2). The meter also has a galvanometer circuit that drives a needle to display moment-to-moment fluctuations in resistance from the baseline. The baseline value is found by rotating the baseline control until the needle is pointing to a “set” position on the dial. GSR Meter Phenomena.

The GSR indicates the level of skin resistance and changes in that level. There are five major parameters to look for in reading a GSR meter (Figure 3):

  • 1. Galvanometer needle motion (rising or falling)
  • 2. Baseline motion (rising or falling)
  • 3. Baseline value (high or low)
  • 4. “Smoothness” of the needle (smooth or rough)
  • 5. Range of needle motion (tight or loose)
  • Skin resistance seems for the most part to be an indicator of awareness or alertness. An increase in alertness or awakeness is manifested by a fall in skin resistance. If the response is short lived and relatively minor, it shows up as a sudden fall in resistance, manifesting as a movement of the needle to the right. If the response is major and prolonged, we will see a major motion of the needle to the right that carries it completely off the dial, necessitating an adjustment of the baseline control to bring the needle back onto the dial. We call this a “baseline drop.”

    Baseline drops are not minor or subtle changes in skin resistance; it is not uncommon for the skin resistance to drop by a factor of five or six in a few seconds (Figure 3). Often the baseline will have to be lowered suddenly from, say, 4.5 to 2.5 in order to keep the viewer’s rapidly falling needle on the dial–a drop from 40,000 Ohms to 8,000 Ohms. In general, the larger and more prolonged the drop in skin resistance, the greater the alerting response is. The GSR meter does not really detect lies; it only detects changes in awareness.

    On the other hand, a rising skin resistance suggests that the viewer’s awareness is becoming clouded over; that she is resisting, protesting, the awareness of something; or that something is going on too long. Or it can indicate the presence of something that the viewer is finding hard to be aware of, i.e., to confront. When and if the viewer does confront it, the baseline will drop, and she will often say something to indicate that she has acquired a new awareness.

    The baseline value has important significance. People who are in a lower than usual state of awareness or awareness because of drugs, alcohol, or sleep deprivation–or who are buried in an unconfrontable amount of emotional charge–tend to have a high baseline value. People who are overwhelmed to the point of being anxious and hyper-vigilant tend to have a low baseline value.

    Besides moving up or down, the needle can display other significant characteristics. A viewer’s needle may be either “smooth” or “rough.” A smooth needle is one that is simply rising or falling but not doing much else, unless it is responding to what the facilitator or viewer is saying. A rough needle displays a lot of extra, unexpected motions. It is choppy, like the surface of a lake on a windy day. A smooth needle indicates that the viewer is in good communication with the facilitator. She is saying what is on her mind. A rough needle indicates that the viewer is not in good communication with the facilitator. Normally, if the viewer has a thought about something that is emotionally charged, the needle will continue to react to that thought until she communicates it to the facilitator. If the viewer is continually thinking thoughts she is not talking about, that fact will show up as apparently “random” movements of the needle, unrelated to what is being said. The facilitator can smooth a rough needle by having the viewer tell him any undelivered communications. In the absence of excellent communication between viewer and Facilitator, the meter will become much less useful. We use specific communication exercises to teach facilitators how to manage and maintain such communication smoothly.

    Finally, the “tightness” or “looseness” of the needle indicates the state of the viewer’s attention. A tight needle is one that does not move very much, or moves only very slowly (usually rising). A loose needle moves around a great deal. When attention is fixed on something, the needle tends to be relatively still. When attention becomes free and can be directed freely at will, the needle becomes looser and, finally, becomes a “floating” needle. As we shall see, the floating needle phenomenon is useful in determining when an “end point” has been reached and it has thus become both safe and desirable to cease working on a particular viewing action.

    Since downward motion of the baseline is an indicator of increased awareness and reduction of charge, the total amount of downward movement of the baseline gives a rough approximation of the amount of charge addressed and resolved in a session.

    Application to Viewing

    Merely “poking around” with a GSR meter, hoping to find something interesting, is an unrewarding activity. To make proper use of a meter, we integrate its use into a systematic and effective approach, and here is where specific viewing procedures come into play. The meter is useful in two major ways: 1) assessing for issues to handle, and 2) knowing when to stop.

    1. Assessing

    The meter is useful in discovering which of the themes or issues that concern the viewer to address first. As mentioned above, a drop in skin resistance reveals an alerting response. The meter responds to things that are just a little way below the viewer’s “awareness threshold”, things of which the viewer is just barely unaware or not fully aware. If the meter responds when an item is presented to the viewer, it indicates that there is something the viewer is not yet fully aware of but that lies just below the surface–and that she will be able to find it by looking. It also indicates that the item is charged. In other words, the meter responds to items that will be fruitful to address. If something is uncharged, the meter will not respond. If the viewer is already fully aware of it, the meter will not respond. Also, if the item is too heavily charged and too far below the viewer’s awareness threshold, the meter will also not respond to its being presented. So the meter is very helpful in enabling the facilitator to decide what to work on. Moreover, by noting differences in the sizes of responses, it is easy for the facilitator to decide which item to address first: the one with the largest response, because that is the one that lies closest to the surface. Once the viewer has handled one item, she is now capable of becoming aware of something else that might hitherto have been inaccessible.

    If a facilitator tries to handle an unresponding item, he will either be

    a. Trying to fix something that doesn’t need fixing, or
    b. Trying to unearth something the viewer is not yet ready to confront.

    Either she will not be able to find what she is looking for, or, when she finds it, it will be too overwhelming to handle, and the session the facilitator is giving will itself become yet another traumatic incident for the viewer.

    Empirically, we have found that the meter responds virtually instantaneously (within a quarter of a second) at the moment the viewer’s attention goes to a charged item. Normally, this is at the exact point when the item is mentioned by either the viewer or the facilitator. In the former case, it might precede verbalization if the viewer thinks about the item before she mentions it. In practice, it is usually easy to see to what the meter is responding.

    As you might imagine, we have found that using a meter for assessment avoids all kinds of difficulty and saves a lot of time wasted in going down blind alleys. Sometimes a patient allows himself to be convinced (by a therapist or otherwise) that a certain incident or issue is central to his difficulties when, in fact, it is not. Such “authoritative” evaluations can produce unwarranted and sometimes unmanageable feelings of guilt or confusion in the recipient.

    Therapists, for instance, had told one Vietnam PTSD survivor, repeatedly and emphatically, that the majority of his difficulties stemmed not from his combat experiences in Vietnam at age 18, but from the “fact” that he had never “properly processed” the death of his mother. When his facilitator told him that the incident of his mother’s death was not responding on the meter (and thus did not appear to have significant emotional charge connected with it), the vet experienced enormous and quite visible relief. His feelings of guilt–over not having been traumatized by something he had been led to believe should have traumatized him–vanished, and for the first time, he became able to address effectively the issues and incidents that truly were the source of his unhappiness.

    2. Knowing When to Stop

    When the viewer has reached a good point of resolution on a viewing procedure, we say that she has reached an “end point,” in which certain phenomena appear that show that she has completed the procedure. These phenomena usually appear in the following order:

    1. Floating Needle. The first sign of an impending end point is usually the appearance of a floating needle, one which is loose and moves freely back and forth with no particular directionality to it. A floating needle is often immediately preceded by a major baseline drop. The floating needle indicates that the viewer’s attention has become un-fixed from an issue on which it had been fixed.

    2. Realization. The viewer will usually voice some kind of realization or insight, a reflection of the fact that she is becoming more aware.

    3. Good Indicators. She will appear happy or relieved. Sometimes she will laugh or say something cheerful. In the absence of good indicators, no end point has occurred. In Traumatic Incident Reduction (TIR), we commonly see two additional parts of an end point:

    4. Extroversion. The viewer, who has had her attention fixed on a past incident during the procedure, now opens her eyes or otherwise indicates at her attention is now back in present time. She will usually look at the facilitator or at the room, or make some comment about something in the here and now.

    5. Intention Expressed. Often, the viewer will explicitly voice one or more intentions she formulated at the time of the traumatic incident. When the facilitator sees an end point, the most important thing he must do is to stop. In most of the activities of life, it is recognized as a general principle that there is a good point at which to stop doing what you are doing. When you are baking a cake, you wait until the indicators appear that show that it is done the right amount: it should be a certain degree of brownness; when you stick a toothpick into it, it should not come out gooey, etc. It would, of course, be wrong to think that because the cake has become nicely baked after an hour, that it would be even better if you let it go for two hours! And that’s true in viewing as well. This may seem to be an obvious point, but surprisingly it neglected in many forms of therapy.

    When the facilitator sees a floating needle, it alerts him to look for the other indicators of an end point, and if those indicators appear, he must stop. If the facilitator continues past the end point and goes on asking the viewer to look for more charged material, she will start to wander around more or less randomly in her mind, and will end up restimulating a lot of things that she will not be able to resolve with the current procedure. If the facilitator overruns an end point in this way, the floating needle will cease and the baseline will start to rise rapidly as the viewer contacts charged material. If the facilitator sees this rapidly rising baseline, he can resolve it by having the viewer spot the end point that was missed earlier. That should bring the baseline back down and recover the floating needle.

    Ingredients Essential to Viewing

    Success in viewing has three major prerequisites:

    1. The area to be examined must be charged and accessible.
    2. Proper procedure must be used.
    3. A safe environment must be established.

    In this essay, I have limited myself to discussing the first two points, but the third is equally important and is a major focus in our TIR courses and workshops. It is necessary to establish a completely non-judgmental, person-centered environment in which there is no interpretation and no statement of the facilitator’s opinions about anything. All insights are spontaneously generated by the client. Only in such an environment can GSR biomonitoring be helpful at all to the client, and observing changes in the GSR manifestations can help to show the facilitator when he has done something to sabotage the safeness of the session. That also gives the facilitator the opportunity to correct his mistake rapidly and completely before continuing.


    [Figure 1]


    [Figure 2]


    1.0 600
    1.5 2,500
    2.0 5,000
    3.0 12,500
    4.0 26,500
    5.0 62,000
    5.5 100,500
    6.0 280,000

    [Figure 3]

    Typical GSR Meter Baseline Settings

    High Baseline Sleep deprived, on drugs or alcohol, or too much to confront.
    Low Baseline Overwhelmed, anxious, hyper-vigilant.

    Rising Baseline Protest, resistance, decreased awareness, or an effort to repress. Or something is going on too long.
    Falling Baseline Increased awareness, successful confronting, discovery, insight.

    Rising Needle See above, under “Rising Baseline.”
    Failing Needle The presence of something charged that is close to awareness.

    Smooth Needle Viewer in good communication with the facilitator.
    Rough Needle Viewer not in good communication with the facilitator; viewer has undelivered communications.

    Tight Needle Fixed attention or something unresolved.
    Floating Needle Resolution achieved, attention free.

    Permission was granted by TIRA (Traumatic Incident Reduction Association, formerly the Institute for Research in Metapsychology) to reprint ‘Biomonitoring as an Aid to Viewing’ by Frank A. Gerbode, M.D., in this issue of The Free Spirit. It originally appeared in the Winter ’92-’93 Newsletter of the Institute for Research in Metapsychology. Please do not reproduce this article without written permission from TIRA.
    This entry was posted in Articles. Bookmark the permalink. Comments are closed, but you can leave a trackback: Trackback URL.

    50 Trackbacks

    1. By گوگل adwords on February 10, 2018 at 12:43 am

      تبلیغ در گوگل ادوردز

      Does your web site have a get in touch with web page? I’m obtaining a tough time finding it but, I’d like to shoot you an e-mail. I’ve got some creative concepts for your site you may be interested in hearing. Either way, fantastic site and I seem forw…

    2. By buy sell domains on February 10, 2018 at 7:36 am

      buy sell domains

      […]just beneath, are numerous entirely not related websites to ours, nonetheless, they’re certainly really worth going over[…]

    3. By سیستم حفاظتی on February 10, 2018 at 8:24 am

      سیستم حفاظتی

      I was curious if you ever believed of shifting the layout of your web site? Its quite properly prepared I adore what youve received to say. But maybe you could a little far more in the way of content material so folks could connect with it greater. You…

    4. By کولر صنعتی on February 10, 2018 at 8:46 am

      خرید کولر صنعتی

      Hi would you brain stating which weblog system you are doing work with? I’m preparing to commence my very own site shortly but I’m having a hard time determining amongst BlogEngine/Wordpress/B2evolution and Drupal. The purpose I inquire is simply becau…

    5. By تستر دوربین مدار بسته مچی on February 10, 2018 at 10:14 am


      Fantastic website! I found it whilst browsing around on Yahoo News. Do you have any ideas on how to get listed in Yahoo Information? I’ve been trying for a whilst but I never ever look to get there! Cheers

    6. By خرید دوربین مدار بسته on February 10, 2018 at 10:28 am

      خرید دوربین مدار بسته

      Hiya! Swift concern which is fully off subject. Do you know how to make your website cellular pleasant? My website appears bizarre when viewing from my apple iphone. I’m trying to find a theme or plugin that may well be in a position to proper this iss…

    7. By خرید vpn وی پی ان on February 10, 2018 at 10:41 am

      vpn ایفون

      We completely enjoy your blog and locate practically all of your post’s to be what exactly I’m hunting for. Does one offer visitor writers to compose articles for you? I wouldn’t thoughts composing a submit or elaborating on a whole lot of the topics y…

    8. By سیستم حفاظتی on February 10, 2018 at 12:09 pm

      سیستم حفاظتی

      you should visit the internet sites we stick to, such as this one particular particular, as it represents our picks via the net

    9. By کولر صنعتی on February 10, 2018 at 2:22 pm

      خرید کولر صنعتی

      Hello would you thoughts letting me know which webhost you are making use of? I’ve loaded your weblog in 3 fully various browsers and I need to say this blog hundreds a great deal faster then most. Can you advise a good internet hosting service provide…

    10. By فروش کریو پرسرعت on February 10, 2018 at 3:10 pm

      vpn ایفون

      Thank you for some other great report. The place else could just anyone get that variety of information in this kind of an best signifies of producing? I have a presentation next 7 days, and I am on the lookup for these kinds of details.

    11. By سیستم cctv on February 10, 2018 at 4:41 pm

      سیستم حفاظتی

      Greetings from Colorado! I’m bored to demise at work so I determined to browse your website on my iphone for the duration of lunch crack. I really like the data you supply here and cannot hold out to take a seem when I get residence. I’m surprised at h…

    12. By خرید دوربین مدار بسته on February 10, 2018 at 5:05 pm

      خرید دوربین مدار بسته

      Hey, I consider your internet site might be getting browser compatibility concerns. When I seem at your weblog in Chrome, it seems wonderful but when opening in Internet Explorer, it has some overlapping. I just wished to give you a fast heads up! Othe…

    13. By کولر صنعتی on February 10, 2018 at 5:33 pm

      خرید کولر صنعتی

      we prefer to honor tons of other world wide web web-websites on the internet, even when they arent joined to us, by linking to them. Below are some webpages really worth checking out

    14. By خرید vpn on February 10, 2018 at 5:48 pm

      vpn ایفون

      Hi there would you mind allowing me know which webhost you are utilizing? I’ve loaded your weblog in 3 totally diverse browsers and I have to say this site masses a lot quicker then most. Can you recommend a great internet hosting supplier at a sincere…

    15. By خرید گوگل ادوردز on February 10, 2018 at 6:43 pm

      تبلیغ در گوگل ادوردز

      Great website! I found it even though browsing close to on Yahoo Information. Do you have any recommendations on how to get detailed in Yahoo Information? I’ve been attempting for a even though but I by no means look to get there! Cheers

    16. By خرید vpn on February 10, 2018 at 6:45 pm

      vpn ایفون

      we arrived throughout a cool internet site that you just could probably delight in. Just take a search in scenario you want

    17. By خرید دوربین مدار بسته on February 10, 2018 at 10:58 pm

      خرید دوربین مدار بسته

      Each and every soon after in a even even though we opt for weblogs that we read. Shown below are the most recent world wide web sites that we decide for

    18. By خرید vpn on February 11, 2018 at 9:47 am

      vpn ایفون

      make sure you pay a visit to the internet sites we adhere to, these kinds of as this a single distinct, as it signifies our picks through the web

    19. By خرید دوربین مدار بسته on February 11, 2018 at 11:53 am

      خرید دوربین مدار بسته

      I know this if off subject but I’m hunting into starting my own weblog and was curious what all is essential to get set up? I’m assuming possessing a website like yours would price a rather penny? I’m not quite world wide web savvy so I’m not a hundred…

    20. By سیستم cctv on February 11, 2018 at 12:05 pm

      سیستم حفاظتی

      beneath you will come across the url to some world wide web-web sites that we think about it is very best to visit

    21. By خرید گوگل ادوردز on February 11, 2018 at 12:05 pm

      تبلیغ در گوگل ادوردز

      normally posts some exceptionally intriguing stuff like this. If youre new to this web site

    22. By خرید طلا on February 11, 2018 at 7:22 pm

      خرید طلا

      I totally really like your weblog and locate a good deal of your post’s to be exactly I’m hunting for. Does one particular provide guest writers to compose content material available for you? I wouldn’t brain producing a publish or elaborating on a few…

    23. By خرید گوگل ادوردز on February 11, 2018 at 8:09 pm

      تبلیغ در گوگل ادوردز

      I’m truly loving the concept/style of your web web site. Do you at any time run into any internet browser compatibility troubles? A small number of my website audience have complained about my blog not working properly in Explorer but appears great in…

    24. By کولر صنعتی on February 11, 2018 at 8:33 pm

      خرید کولر صنعتی

      Hey! I know this is fairly off subject but I was pondering which site platform are you making use of for this internet site? I’m getting ill and exhausted of WordPress because I have had difficulties with hackers and I’m searching at options for yet an…

    25. By خرید vpn on February 11, 2018 at 9:30 pm

      vpn ایفون

      Wonderful tale, reckoned we could combine many unrelated info, however genuinely actually really worth having a research, whoa did 1 specific learn about Mid East has received a great deal far more problerms also

    26. By خرید دوربین مدار بسته on February 11, 2018 at 10:17 pm

      خرید دوربین مدار بسته

      With respect to ergonomics and the sophisticated technilogy Heuer duplicate watches have been the amazing samples of athletics watches.

    27. By سیستم cctv on February 12, 2018 at 10:32 pm

      سیستم حفاظتی

      I was curious if you at any time considered of modifying the layout of your website? Its very effectively written I adore what youve acquired to say. But perhaps you could a small far more in the way of content so individuals could join with it much be…

    28. By خرید vpn on February 12, 2018 at 11:14 pm

      vpn ایفون

      Great way of describing, and fastidious post to get info about my presentation topic subject, which i am likely to convey in university.

    29. By کولر صنعتی on February 12, 2018 at 11:34 pm

      خرید کولر صنعتی

      here are some back links to web web pages that we url to because we truly feel they are truly well worth visiting

    30. By خرید دوربین مدار بسته on February 13, 2018 at 12:20 am

      خرید دوربین مدار بسته

      Thanks for one more useful world wide web web site. The place else could I get that sort of info composed in such an excellent approach?I have a venture that I’m just now running on, and I have been at the look outfor these kinds of information.

    31. By خرید طلا on February 13, 2018 at 1:35 am

      خرید طلا

      Check out underneath, are some fully unrelated internet-web sites to ours, even so, they’re most reliable resources that we use.

    32. By mp3 songs on February 13, 2018 at 2:06 am

      mp3 songs

      […]The facts talked about in the post are some of the most beneficial offered […]

    33. By IPhone bulk on February 13, 2018 at 11:34 am

      IPhone bulk

      […]The details mentioned within the article are several of the top accessible […]

    34. By سیستم cctv on February 14, 2018 at 9:32 pm

      سیستم حفاظتی

      With regard to ergonomics and the sophisticated technilogy Heuer reproduction watches have been the wonderful samples of athletics watches.

    35. By خرید دوربین مدار بسته on February 14, 2018 at 10:05 pm

      خرید دوربین مدار بسته

      remember to check out the sites we stick to, this kind of as this one specific, as it represents our picks through the web

    36. By کولر صنعتی on February 14, 2018 at 10:26 pm
    37. By best ways to make money online 2018 on February 14, 2018 at 10:44 pm

      best ways to make money online 2018

      […]please pay a visit to the websites we stick to, including this 1, because it represents our picks from the web[…]

    38. By خرید طلا on February 14, 2018 at 11:21 pm

      خرید طلا

      Hey! I know this is somewhat off subject but I was asking yourself which weblog system are you employing for this website? I’m receiving ill and exhausted of WordPress since I’ve experienced problems with hackers and I’m searching at alternatives for a…

    39. By خرید vpn on February 15, 2018 at 12:00 am

      vpn ایفون

      Hi there there! This is sort of off topic but I need some tips from an recognized blog. Is it extremely tough to established up your personal weblog? I’m not extremely techincal but I can figure items out pretty rapid. I’m pondering about placing up my…

    40. By خرید فیلترشکن on February 15, 2018 at 9:08 am

      vpn ایفون

      We absolutely love your website and find practically all of your post’s to be what specifically I’m searching for. Does one provide visitor writers to compose content for you? I wouldn’t brain creating a put up or elaborating on a great deal of the top…

    41. By obat Sipilis on February 15, 2018 at 9:10 am

      Biomonitoring as an Aid to Viewing

      Informasi yang diberikan bukanlah pengganti nasihat medis. SELALU konsultasikan pada dokter Anda.

    42. By obat Sipilis on February 15, 2018 at 1:34 pm

      Biomonitoring as an Aid to Viewing

      Gejala raja singa tahap pertama muncul 2-4 minggu setelah terjadi infeksi, dalam bentuk luka yang tidak terasa sakit (chancre) di mana bakteri masuk ke dalam tubuh. Luka jenis ini sering terasa pada alat kelamin tetapi juga dapat dilihat di mulut atau…

    43. By ausland work and travel on February 15, 2018 at 8:42 pm

      ausland work and travel

      […]check beneath, are some completely unrelated websites to ours, even so, they are most trustworthy sources that we use[…]

    44. By gratis inserate on February 15, 2018 at 9:06 pm

      gratis inserate

      […]Here is a great Blog You might Come across Exciting that we Encourage You[…]

    45. By دانلود قالب جوملا on February 16, 2018 at 8:50 am


      we came across a great internet site that you just could potentially delight in. Consider a seem in circumstance you want

    46. By best 100% kona coffee on February 16, 2018 at 11:33 am

      best 100% kona coffee

      […]Here are several of the web sites we recommend for our visitors[…]

    47. By خرید vpn on February 16, 2018 at 1:57 pm

      vpn ایفون

      we arrived across a awesome internet site that you just could perhaps delight in. Take a search in situation you want

    48. By men prostate massage on February 16, 2018 at 8:29 pm

      men prostate massage

      […]we like to honor numerous other net web pages on the net, even though they aren?t linked to us, by linking to them. Underneath are some webpages really worth checking out[…]

    49. By what do nipple clamps do on February 17, 2018 at 10:06 am

      what do nipple clamps do

      […]below you?ll find the link to some web sites that we consider you need to visit[…]

    50. By سیستم cctv on February 17, 2018 at 11:09 am

      سیستم حفاظتی

      Hey, I think your internet site might be possessing browser compatibility issues. When I search at your blog in Chrome, it looks fine but when opening in Internet Explorer, it has some overlapping. I just needed to give you a fast heads up! Other then…

    • Sign up here to be notified about Email Newsletter icon, E-mail Newsletter icon, Email List icon, E-mail List icon

      • Upcoming Trainings and Workshops!
      • Free Teleseminars & Webinars
      • New Products!
      • Discounts
      Enter Your Email

      For Email Marketing you can trust